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Evaluation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes f | 106881
An International Journal

Agricultural and Biological Research

ISSN - 0970-1907
RNI # 24/103/2012-R1

Abstract

Evaluation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for yellow and stem rust adult plant resistance and disease impact on grain yield

Demeke Zewdu, Kedir Yimam

Wheat is a self-pollinating annual plant, is extensively grown for staple
food in the world. Yellow and stem rust of wheat are the most important
fungal diseases of wheat and the major production challenges in the major
wheat producing regions of Ethiopia. The present research was conducted at
Kulumsa for yellow rust and Dera for stem rust in 2021 with the objective to
evaluate bread wheat genotypes for yellow and stem rust adult plant resistance
and to assess the diseases impact on grain yield in the natural field condition.
Based on final rust severity for yellow and stem rust severity showed from
immune 0 to 90%, for yellow rust 51 genotypes showed high adult plant
resistance (1-20% of severity), 4 genotypes observed as medium adult plant
resistance (21-40% of severity) and 9 genotypes observed as low adult plant
resistance (>41% of yellow rust severity), for stem rust 44 genotypes showed
high adult plant resistance (1-20 % of severity), 8 genotypes observed as
medium adult plant resistance (21-40 % of severity) and 12 genotypes observed
as low adult plant resistance (>41% of stem rust severity). Tested genotypes
showed diverse reactions for yellow and stem rust ranging from Resistance
(R) to Susceptible (S) responses. The regression analysis showed that when
the yellow rust severity changes within a unit the grain yield decreased by
35.871 kg/ha and when the stem rust severity changes within a unit the grain
yield decreased by 18.574 kg/ha. The correlation analysis also revealed that
grain yield had negative significant correlation with yellow rust (r=-0.78) and
stem (r=-0.67) disease severity and Area Under the Disease Progress Curve
(AUDPC). Genotypes 2 and 46 had maximum grain yield 6.07 t/ha and 5.67
t/ha with low yellow rust AUDPC value 35 and 0 respectively. Genotypes 30
and 4 had maximum grain yield 3.94 t/ha and 3.85 t/ha with low stem rust
AUDPC value 0 and 21 respectively.

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