Aliyu Ahmad Mahmud, Abhishek Raj, Manoj Kumar Jhariya
In scientific agricultural practices, agroforestry systems are gaining wide recognition due to its healthy integration of woody perennial trees, herbaceous crops and livestock’s in unit areas which are socially acceptable, economically viable and ecologically sound. In the tropics, agroforestry system has been well established practice varies significantly from region to region depending on the levels of management inputs, structure and function of woody perennials, as well as environmental and ecological fitness of the system. The most common practices in the tropics includes; improved fallow, alley cropping, multifunctional trees on farms and rangelands, home gardens, windbreak, shelterbelts, silvopastoral grazing system, taungya farming and shaded perennial-crop system. The above-mentioned system has been well known for its potential in improving and sustaining agricultural production through increased soil fertility, climate change amelioration, breaking the current challenge of food insecurity and poverty circles, besides raising the livelihood of rural poor owing to diverse products derived from the systems such as food, fuel wood, timber and source of income. Poor policy, ineffective governance, less adoptability of systems by farmers due to unawareness are the major constraints behind success of agroforestry systems. In this context, a better and effective R&D along with scientific management of agroforestry practices not only promotes agroforestry systems but also promise better resource conservation along with maintaining soil-food-climate security at global scale.